وب سایت چندین چندین دانشگاه و مدرسه معتبر بین المللی
هنر و سینما در ایلات متحده آمریکا و سراسر جهان
این مجموعه برای دسترسی علاقمندان به تحصیل در سطوح بالاتر و پیشرفته تر در سینما و هنر جمع آوری
گردیده شده است
aBetter Film Online Mentoring (online)
Adventure Film School (Boulder, CO)
Alpha Pacific Institute (Phoenix, Arizona)
American University School of Communication (Washington, D.C.)
American Intercontinental University-Buckhead (Atlanta, Georgia)
American Intercontinental University - South Florida (Fort Lauderdale, Florida)
Arizona State University School of Theatre and Film (Tempe, Arizona, USA)
Antoinette Westphal College of Media Arts and Design Film Program (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
Ball State University (Muncie, Indiana)
Blue Ridge Motion Pictures Film Institute (Asheville, North Carolina)
Boston University Department of Film and Television (Boston, Massachusetts)
Brooklyn College Department of Film (Brooklyn, NY)
Burlington College, Department of Cinema Studies and Film Production (Burlington, VT)
Carolina Film Institute (Greenville, SC)
Center for Digital Imaging Arts at Boston University (Boston, Massachusetts)
Cleveland State University Film and Digital Media Program (Cleveland, Ohio)
College of Santa Fe Moving Image Arts (Santa Fe, NM)
Collins College (Tempe, AZ)
Colorado Film School (Denver, Colorado)
Columbia University Film Division (New York, NY)
Columbia College Chicago (Chicago, Illinois)
DePaul University Center for Cinema and Interactive Arts (Chicago, Illinois)
DeSales University (Center Valley, Pennsylvania)
The Documentary Center, The George Washington University (Washington D.C.)
The Documentary Institute, The University of Florida (Gainesville, Florida)
Dream Productions & Media Entertainment (Humble, Texas and Los Angeles, California)
Emerson College: Department of Visual & Media Arts (Boston, Massachusetts)
Fairfield University New Media Film, Television and Radio Program (Fairfield, CT)
Fairleigh Dickinson University, Visual and Performing Arts Department (Teaneck, NJ)
Filmtech (Philadelphia, PA)
Fitchburg State College Communications Media Department (Fitchburg, MA)
Flashpoint Academy of Media Arts & Sciences (Chicago, IL)
Florida State University Film School (Tallahassee, FL)
Full Sail University (Winter Park, FL)
Grand Valley State University Film & Video Production (Allendale, MI)
Indiana University/Department of Communication and Culture (Bloomington,IN)
The Independent Film School (New York, NY)
Industry Film Schools (Shrewsbury, NJ)
The International Film Institute of New York (New York, NY)
Ithaca Film School (Ithaca, NY)
The Jason Bennett Actor's Workshop (New York, NY)
Johnny Carson School of Theatre and Film at the University of Nebraska (Lincoln, Nebraska)
KD College Conservatory of Film and Dramatic Arts (Dallas, Texas)
Las Vegas School Of Film (Las Vegas, NV)
Lawrence University Department of Theatre Arts (Appleton, WI)
Lights Film School (New York, NY)
Madison Media Institute (Madison, Wisconsin)
Minneapolis College of Art and Design Filmmaking Program (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Minneapolis Community and Technical College - Cinema Division (Minneapolis, Minnesota)
Monroe Community College - Cinema and Screen Studies (Rochester, New York)
Montana State University - Department of Media and Theatre Arts (Bozeman, Montana)
Motion Picture Institute of Michigan (Troy, Michigan)
mediakite Training Center (New York, NY)
Mediatech Institute (Dallas/Austin/Houston, Texas)
MediaTech Institute (San Diego, CA)
Miami Dade Community College School of Entertainment and Design Technology (Miami, FL)
Middlebury College Film-Video Program (Middlebury, VT)
Minnesota State University-Moorhead (Moorhead, MN)
Musician's Institute Program of Film (Hollywood, CA)
The Nashville Film Institute (Nashville, TN)
The New School - Documentary Studies (New York, NY)
New York Film Academy Film School (New York, NY)
New York Conservatory for Dramatic Arts (New York, NY)
New York Video School (New York, NY)
NJ Film School (Martinsville, NJ)
NYU - Tisch School of the Arts, Department of Film and Television (New York, NY)
North Carolina School of the Arts (Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
Ohio University School of Film (Athens, OH)
Palm Beach Community College Motion Picture and Television Production Program (Palm Beach, Florida)
Palm Beach Film School (West Palm Beach, Florida)
Piedmont Community College Film School (Yanceyville, North Carolina)
Pittsburgh Filmmakers (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
Point Park University, Cinema and Digital Arts (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
Prince of Prestige Academy of Film (Maitland, Florida)
Regent University School of Communication & the Arts (Virginia Beach, Virginia)
R. K. Films & Media Academy (New Delhi, India)
Rochester Institute of Technology School of Film and Animation (Rochester, New York)
Saint Augustine's College Theatre and Film Program (Raleigh, North Carolina)
Santa Fe Community College Film Program (Santa Fe, New Mexico)
Savannah College of Art and Design (Savannah, Georgia)
Scottsdale Community College Film Program (Scottsdale, Arizona)
Seattle Film Institute (Seattle, Washington)
Shepherd Film Academy (Memphis, Tennessee)
SMU | Meadows School of the Arts- Division of Cinema Television (Dallas, Texas)
Southern Illinois University Carbondale Department of Cinema and Photography (Carbondale, Illinois)
State University of New York, Purchase College Film B.A. Film Program (Purchase, New York)
Syracuse University, Newhouse School of Public Communications (Syracuse, NY)
Temple University, Department of Film and Media Arts (Philadelphia, PA)
Theatre of Arts (Hollywood, California, USA)
Trident Technical College Program of Film, Media and Visual Arts (Charleston, SC)
University of Advancing Technology, Digital Video Department (Tempe, AZ)
University of Alabama, Telecommunication and Film Department (Tuscaloosa, AL)
University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ)
University of Central Arkansas (Conway, AR)
University of Central Florida, Film Program (Orlando, FL)
The University of Illinois - Chicago, Department of Electronic Media, Film, Photography (Chicago, Illinois)
University of Iowa Department of Cinema and Comparative Literature (Iowa City, IA)
University of Kansas Department of Theatre & Film (Lawrence, KS)
University of Memphis Film and Video Production Program (Memphis, Tennessee)
University of Miami, School of Communication, Motion Pictures Program (Miami, FL)
University of North Alabama (Florence, Alabama)
University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Broadcasting and Cinema Department (Greensboro, North Carolina)
University of North Carolina at Wilmington (Wilmington, North Carolina)
University of North Carolina School of the Arts (Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
University of Oklahoma, Film and Video Studies (Norman, Oklahoma)
University Of Pittsburgh Film Studies Department (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
University of Texas at Austin Department of Radio - Television - Film (Austin, TX)
University of Utah Film Division (Salt Lake City, UT)
University of Washington, Comparative Literature and Cinema Studies (Seattle, Washington)
University of Wisconsin Milwaukee, Peck School of the Arts (Milwaukee, WI)
University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Department of Radio-Television-Film (Oshkosh, WI)
Utah Valley University - Digital Media Program (Orem, UT)
Valencia Community College Arts and Entertainment Program (Orlando, FL)
Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) Cinema Program (Richmond, VA)
Wake Forest University Documentary Film Program (Winston-Salem, North Carolina)
Watkins College of Art&Design Film School (Nashville, TN)
Western Carolina University Motion Picture & Television Production Program (Cullowhee, North Carolina)
Worcester State College Communications Department in Film/Media (Worcester, MA)
Zaki Gordon Institute for Independent Filmmaking (Sedona, Arizona)
Academy of Art University (San Francisco, CA)
American Intercontinental University - Los Angeles (Los Angeles, California)
American Film Institute Center for Advanced Film and Television Studies (Los Angeles, CA)
Art Center College of Design (Pasadena, CA)
Berkeley Digital Film Institute (Berkeley, California)
Brooks Institute (Santa Barbara, CA)
CalArts School of Film and Video (Valencia, CA)
California State University, Dominguez Hills Digital Media Arts Program (Carson, California)
California State University, Fullerton Department of Radio-TV-Film Department (Fullerton, CA)
California State University, Long Beach Film & Electronic Arts (Long Beach, CA)
California State University, Los Angeles Television/Film/and Media Studies (Los Angeles, CA)
California State University, Monterey Bay Teledramatic Arts and Technology Department (Monterey Bay, CA)
California State University Northridge Department of Cinema and Television Arts (Northridge, California)
Cinema Arts Tech (Los Angeles, CA)
Chapman University School of Film and Television (Orange, CA)
Columbia College Hollywood (Tarzana, CA)
Film Arts Foundation (San Francisco, CA)
Film Connection (Los Angeles, CA)
Hero Film School (Hollywood, CA)
The Hollywood Film and Acting Academy (Hollywood, CA)
Hollywood for Kids (Hollywood, CA)
Los Angeles City College Department of Cinema and Television (Los Angeles, CA)
Los Angeles Feature Film Academy (Los Angeles, CA)
Los Angeles Film School (Hollywood, CA)
Loyola Marymount University School of Film and Television (Los Angeles, CA)
Mount St. Mary's College Film & Social Justice Program (Los Angeles, CA)
Musician's Institute Program of Film (Hollywood, CA)
New York Film Academy, Universal Studios (Hollywood, CA)
Orange Coast College Department of Film (Costa Mesa, CA)
Orange County High School of the Arts (Santa Ana, CA)
San Diego State University School of Communication (San Diego, CA)
San Francisco School of Digital Filmmaking (San Francisco, CA)
San Francisco State University Cinema Department (San Francisco, CA)
San Jose State University Department of Television, Radio, Film, and Theatre (San Jose, CA)
Stanford University Graduate Program in Documentary Film & Video (Stanford, CA)
Steinlein Productions (Los Angeles, CA)
University of California, Los Angeles Professional Programs in Screenwriting and Producing (Los Angeles, CA)
University of California, Los Angeles School of Film, Theater, and Television (Los Angeles, CA)
University of California, Los Angeles Extension's Entertainment Studies and Performing Arts Department (Los Angeles, CA)
University of California, Riverside's Media and Cultural Studies Program (Riverside, CA)
University of California, San Diego Department of Visual Arts (San Diego, CA)
University of California, Santa Cruz Film and Digital Media Program (Santa Cruz,California)
University of Southern California School of Cinema Television (Los Angeles, CA)
University of Southern California School Summer Film School (Los Angeles, CA)
Video Symphony (Burbank, CA)
Vidiots Annex (Santa Monica, CA)
InternationalAcademia Internacional de Cinema (Sao Paulo, Brazil)
Academy of Arts, The Department of Drama (Novi Sad, Serbia)
Academy of Media Arts Cologne (Cologne, Germany)
Academy of Music, Theater and Fine Arts (Chisinau, Republic of Moldova)
Act Capetown International (Cape Town, South Africa)
afilm International Film Workshops (Sitges, Barcelona, Spain)
Anna Fiorentini Theatre and Film School (London, UK)
APA International Film Schools (Sydney, Australia)
Ariege Arts DV Filmmaking (Ariege-Pyrenees, France)
Arts University College at Bournemouth (Bournemouth, United Kingdom)
Asia Pacific Film Institute (Manila, Philippines)
Asian Academy Of Film & Television (Noida, India)
Australian Film, Television & Radio School (various locations, Australia)
Baltic Film and Media School (Tallinn, Estonia)
Bond University Centre for Film, Television & Screen-Based Media (Gold Coast, Australia)
Central Film School London (London, England)
Centre for Arts and Technology (Kelowna, British Columbia, Canada)
Centro (Mexico City, Mexico)
CICE - Escuela Profesional de Nuevas Technologias (Madrid, Spain)
CityVarsity School of Media & Creative Arts (Cape Town, Johannesburg, South Africa)
Columbia Academy - Video and Film Production (Vancouver, BC, Canada)
Conservatoire Libre du Cinï¿½ma Franï¿½ais CLCF (Paris, France)
CRAFT: Center For Research in Art of Film and Television (Delhi, India)
CRAFT (Costa Rica Art, Film & Television) Media Course (Tamarindo, Costa Rica)
Deutsche Film- und Fernsehakademie Berlin (Berlin, Germany)
Digital Film Academy (Istanbul, Turkey)
Digital Academy: The Film School (Mumbai, India)
Digital Film Academy of Toronto (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Digital Film School (Dublin, Ireland)
Digital Film School (Mumbai, India)
Digital Studio College (Jakarta, Indonesia)
Dramatiska institutet University College of Film, Radio, Television and Theatre (Stockholm, Sweden)
Ecole des Arts Visuels de Marrakech (Marrakesh, Morocco)
Ecole Superieure Libre d'Etudes Cinematographiques (Paris, France)
Emily Carr Institute of Art, Design and Media (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)
EICAR - The International Film School Of Paris (Paris, France)
Elstree Film School (Borehamwood, England)
ESCAC (Barcelona, Spain)
e Scape Movieworks Inc. (Vancouver, Canada)
Escola Superior de Teatro e Cinema (Lisbon, Portugal)
Escuela Superior de Artes y Espectáculos TAI (Madrid, Spain)
Escuela de Cine y Television Septima Ars (Madrid, Spain)
Escuela Internacional de Cine y Televisiï¿½n (San Antonio de los Baios, Cuba)
Escuela de Cinematografï¿½a y del Audiovisual de la Comunidad de Madrid (ECAM) (Madrid, Spain)
Escuela Superior de Dibujo Profesional (ESDIP) (Madrid, Spain)
ESEC (Paris, France)
Etobicoke School of the Arts (Toronto, Ontario,Canada)
European Film Actor School (EFAS) (Zurich, Switzerland)
The European Film College (Ebeltoft, Denmark)
Faculty of Dramatic Arts (Belgrade, Serbia)
FAMO - Film Academy of Miroslav Ondricek (Pisek, Czech Republic)
Femis (Ecole nationale superieure des metiers de l'image et du son) (Paris, France)
Filmakademie Salzburg (Salzburg, Austria)
Film Akademie (Baden-Wïrttemberg, Germany)
The Film School (Wellington, New Zealand)
Film and Television Institute of India, Pune (Pune, Maharashtra, India)
Film and Television Institute of Tamilnadu (Chennai, India)
Film and Television School Of The Academy Of Performing Arts In Prague (Prague, Czech Republic)
Film School Zlin (Zlin, Czech Republic)
The Film Workshops Monterrey (Monterrey, Mexico)
Filmakademie Baden-Wï¿½rttemberg (Ludwigsburg, Germany)
Filmosofia (Granada, Spain)
Flash Frame Visuals Academy of Film & Television (Bangalore, India)
Florence International Film School (Florence, Italy)
Global Media Adventures Documentary Films Program (Samara, Costa Rica)
Griffith University Film School (Brisbane, Queensland, Australia)
Hamburg Media School (Hamburg, Germany)
Hochschule Film und Fernsehen (HFF) Konrad Wolf (Potsdam-Babelsberg, Germany)
Hochschule Film und Fernsehen Munich (Munich, Germany)
Humber College - Film & Television Production (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Institut National Superieure des Arts du Spectacle (Brussels, Belgium)
Instituto Ruso Mexicano De Serguei Eisenstein (Mexico City, Mexico)
Instituto Superior Tecnologico de Cine y Actuación (Quito, Ecuador)
The International Film School Sydney (Sydney, Australia)
International Academy of Film and Television (Mactan Island, Cebu, Phillipines)
International Film College (Gold Coast, Australia)
International Film School Wales (Newport, Wales, UK)
Italian National School of Cinema (Rome, Italy)
The Icelandic Film School (Reykjavik, Iceland)
Kinema Escuela de Cine (Bilbao, Spain)
Krakowska Szkola Teatralna i Filmowa (Kraków, Poland)
Langara College Digital Film Production Program (Vancouver, BC, Canada)
Langara College Film Arts Program for Actors, Writers and Directors (Vancouver, BC, Canada)
Lillehammer University College Film School (Lillehammer, Norway)
London Film Academy (London, UK)
London Film School (London, UK)
London School of Film, Media and Performance (London, UK)
MadArts - Jaspal Bhatti Film School (Mohali, India)
Ma'aleh School of Television, Film and the Arts (Jerusalem, Israel)
Marilou Diaz-Abaya Film Institute and Arts Center (San Juan, Philippines)
Masterclass Ludwigsburg/Paris (Ludwigsburg, Germany and Paris, France)
Maurits Binger Filminstituut (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
The Mel Hoppenheim School of Cinema, Concordia University (Montreal, Canada)
The Met Film School UK (London, UK)
Metropolis: Escuela de Cine y Arte Dramatico (Madrid, Spain)
Mimar Sinan University - Turkish Film and TV Institute (Istanbul, Turkey)
MoFORCE Training For Television and Film (Nairobi, Kenya)
Narafi Film School (Brussels, Belgium)
National Academy for Theatre and Film Arts (Sofia, Bulgaria)
National College of Arts (Lahore, Pakistan)
National Film and Television School (Beaconsfield, UK)
National Film School of Denmark (Copenhagen, Denmark)
National Film School of Florence, Italy (Florence, Italy)
Nederlandse Film en Televisie Academie (Amsterdam, The Netherlands)
Neptune Institute of Film and Television (Delhi, India)
New Media Technology College (Dublin, Ireland)
New Renaissance Florence (Florence, Italy)
New Zealand Film Academy (Auckland, New Zealand)
Noroff Instituttet (Oslo, Norway)
Northern Film School, Leeds Metropolitan University (Leeds, UK)
Norges Kreative Fagskole, Department of Film (Oslo, Norway)
NYU Tisch School of the Arts Asia (Singapore)
Pacific Audio Visual Institute (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)
Pacific Film & New Media Academy (Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada)
Participate Film Academy (Sydney, Australia)
Prague Film School (Prague, Czech Republic)
Queen's University Department of Film Studies (Kingston, Canada)
Queensland School of Film and Television (Queensland, Australia)
Red Deer College Department of Motion Picture Arts (Red Deer, Alberta, Canada)
The Red Sea Institute of Cinematic Arts (Aqaba, Jordan)
Reel Edge Film Academy (Johannesburg, South Africa)
The All-Russian State University of Cinematography (Moscow, Russia)
Ryerson Polytechnic - Image Arts, Film, Photography, New Media (Toronto, Canada)
SAE Institute, Byron Bay - World Headquarters (Byron Bay, Australia)
SAE Institute Cape Town (Cape Town, South Africa)
SAE Institute London (London, UK)
St. Petersburg State University of Film and Television (St. Petersburg, Russia)
Sam Spiegel Film and Television School (Jerusalem, Israel)
Sarajevo Film Academy (Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina)
School of Media Arts and Imaging, Time Based Art and Digital Film (Dundee, Scotland, UK)
School of Media Technology (Singapore)
Screen Academy Scotland at Napier University (Dundee, Scotland, UK)
Scuola di Cinema Pigrecoemme (Naples, Italy)
Screenwise (Surry Hills, Australia)
Septima Ars School of Cinema and TV (Madrid, Spain)
Shaheed Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Institute of Science and Technology (SZABIST) (Karachi Pakistan)
Sheridan Institute of Technology & Advanced Learning, School of Animation,Arts & Design (Oakville, Ontario, Canada)
The South African School of Motion Picture Medium and Live Performance (Capetown and Johannesburg, South Africa)
Staffordshire University Department of Media and Entertainment Technology (Staffordshire, UK)
Stavrakos Academy (Athens, Greece)
The South African School of Motion Picture Medium & Live Performance (Johannesburg and Capetown, South Africa)
Southseas Film School (Auckland, New Zealand)
South Thames College Film School (London, UK)
Straight Curve Film School (Beckenham, UK)
Summer School in Filmmaking at Melbourne University (Melbourne, Australia)
Swinburne School of Film and Television (Prahran, Melbourne, Australia)
Sydney Film School (Sydney, Australia)
Toronto Film College (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
Toronto Film School (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
UK National Film & Television School (Beaconsfield, UK)
Unitec School of Performing and Screen Arts (Auckland, New Zealand)
Universidad de la Sabana (Bogotï¿½, Colombia)
Universidad del Cine (Buenos Aires, Argentina)
Universidad Manuela Beltran (Bogotï¿½, Colombia)
Universidad Nacional de Colombia (Bogota, Colombia)
Universidade Lusofona (Lisbon, Portugal)
Universitatea Hyperion (Bucharest, Romania)
Universitatea Media (Bucharest, Romania)
Universitatea Nationala De Arta Teatrala Si Cinematografica (Bucharest, Romania)
University College Dublin Centre for Film Studies (Dublin, Ireland)
University of Applied Sciences: Audiovisual Media/Cinematography (Berlin, Germany)
University of Art and Design Helsinki, Department of Film and Television (Helsinki, Finland)
University of British Columbia, Continuing Studies, Entertainment Administration (Vancouver, Canada)
University of the Arts London, London College of Communication (London, UK)
University of Hyderabad Department of Communication (Hyderabad, India)
University of the Philippines Film Institute (UPFI) (Quezon City, Philippines)
University of Westminster Film School, Harrow Campus (London, UK)
University of Witwatersrand (Johannesburg, South Africa)
Vancouver Film School (Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada)
Victoria IndieCine Ltd. (Victoria, British Columbia, Canada)
Victorian College of the Arts (Melbourne, Australia)
Warsaw Film School (Warsaw, Poland)
WA Screen Academy (Perth, Western Australia)
Westbridge Film School (Mexico City, Mexico)
Whistling Woods International Institute for Film, Television, Animation & Media Arts (Mumbai, Maharashtra, India)
York University, Department of Film (Toronto, Ontario, Canada)
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Zero Cut - A method of negative cutting specifically for blow up, where every shot is given Frame Handles so that the registration pin of the printer is never engaging with a splice, which can cause the image to wobble at the cut. It is most commonly used when you are blowing up from 16mm to 35mm. Zero cut should be done only if really necessary, because the lab can only print the film as an optical, which is far more expensive than a contact print. Zero cutting is a little more complicated than standard A&B rolls, so the negative cutter also charges more for it.
Zoom Lens - A variable focal length lens. A zoom lens will have a third ring, besides ones controlling focus and iris, that will allow you to change the focal length within a range of wide to long.
A Glossary of Film Terms ( Z ) ،
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Xenon - A very bright, daylight balanced projection lamp, or a projector with a xenon lamp. A xenon lamp is not interchangeable with a tungsten lamp or arch lamp, but requires a different lamp housing on the projector. Because xenon lamps are daylight balanced it is sometimes advisable with color film to have the lab make a print that is balanced for xenon. This is sometimes called a 5,400K print, the color temperature of daylight.
A Glossary of Film Terms ( X) ،
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Wet Gate - A contact printing method, made on a specially equipped printing machine, where the film is in a liquid that temporarily fills in any scratches on the base, preventing them from refracting light and showing up in the print. Commonly, answer prints are printed with a wet gate. Labs often charge a little extra for wet gate printing.
Wide Lens - A lens with a focal length smaller than 25mm in 16mm, or 50mm in 35mm, which, like looking into the wrong end of a pair of binoculars, provides an extended view of a large area.
Wild - Not sync. A wild motor is one that runs close to 24 frames per second, but not close enough for sync sound. Also applies in a few other cases, such as, if you are filming a rear screen projection scene and the projector and camera are not Interlocked they can be said to be running wild.
Wild Sound - Non-sync sound, recorded without the camera running, usually recorded to supplement the sync takes.
Workprint - A positive copy of the original negative that is cut during the editing process. At the end of editing the original negative is then cut by the negative cutter to match the workprint shot for shot, and an answer print struck from the cut negative. A workprint can also be made from reversal original.
A Wrap or “It’s a Wrap!” - What to say when you are done shooting, either for the day, at that particular set, or on the entire film. Usually if it’s not the final shoot you would say you are just going to “wrap for the day.”
A Glossary of Film Terms ( W ) ،
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Vari Speed - A motor or the control for a motor which will run a camera or an editing machine at speed faster or slower than sound speed.
Vault Box - A white, flat, square cardboard box designed to hold 1,000 feet of 35mm or two 1,000 foot rolls of 16mm.
A Glossary of Film Terms ( V ) ،
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Ultra-Sonic Cleaner - A sophisticated cleaning machine found at labs to clean negatives prior to printing or transfer to video. It uses sound waves to shake loose dust.
Ultra-Sonic Splicer - An expensive and sophisticated splicing machine used for splicing Polyester Base stock.
Undercrank - To run the camera slower, producing fast motion. The term has survived from the time when you would crank a camera.
Underexposure - Filming a scene with less light than the emulsion of the film needs for a correct exposure. The image will be too dark. If compensated for in printing, the image will appear grainy, and very muddy.
“Unprofessional” - An insult hurled at someone during a crisis when they have broken some unwritten rule of professional conduct. Commonly the term is used with the most frequency by people to whom it would just as easily apply.
Upright Moviola or Upright - An editing machine with arms in back to hold the take up and supply reels. The film moves up and around to a screen on the front. Foot petals control motors for sound speed and variable speed viewing.
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Tachometer - A gauge on a camera measuring the film speed when the camera is running.
Tail - The end of a shot or a roll is called the tail.
Tail Slate - Sometimes it is necessary to mark a shot at the end rather than at the beginning. When this is done it is called a tail slate. It is customary to call “Tail Slate!” just before clapping the slate, so that the person syncing the film does not get confused. To easily distinguish a tail slate, the slate is held upside down when marking the shot.
Take - Multiple versions of the same shot are called takes.
Take Up Reel - An empty reel, used on a projector to gather up the film after it has passed through the movement.
Take Up Spool - An empty spool in a camera used to gather up the film after it has passed through the movement.
The Taking Lens - On a turret, the lens that is actually in front of the gate, producing an image on the film.
Tape Splice - A method of joining two pieces of film so they can be projected as one continuous piece. Tape splices are used in the editing stage. To cut the negative Cement Splices are used.
Telecine - A machine for transferring film to video.
Telephoto - Used as an equivalent to Long Lens, but for those who wish to be overly exact, a telephoto lens is a long lens that is physically shorter than its focal length.
3,200K - 3,200K is the color temperature of Tungsten.
Tie-In Kit - A device for bypassing the fuse box and electrical wiring of a location by tapping power directly from the mains.
Tight Wind - A handy attachment sometimes found on an editing bench on the right rewind, used to wind film onto a core and giving it a very smooth edge. It can be quicker than opening and tightening split reels if you are just rewinding an entire roll.
Tight Wind Hub - A tight wind is useless without it. This is the hub that holds a core on the spindle of a rewind.
Tilt - A vertical camera move on an axis, up or down. Not to be used interchangeably with pan. It is not really correct to say “pan up” or “pan down,” when you really mean tilt.
Time Lapse - Time lapse is when single frame shooting is used to dramatically speed up the action over the course of a long period of time. Typically it is a process where a single frame is shot after a consistent pause. It could be one frame every ten seconds, or one frame every hour, and such.
Timed Print - Unlike a One Light Print, this is a print where the timer has gone through and timed every shot.
Timer - The person at the lab who goes through your film, shot by shot and selects the printing lights.
Timing - The lab’s process of selecting printing lights to for the proper redition of exposure and color when making a print. The term is a little consuing, as it has nothing at all to do with “time” as in “running time” or such.
Timing Lights or Printing Lights - These are the lamps of the contact printer at the lab. Their brightness can be controlled, which is measured in a scale of 1 to 50, 1 being the darkest and 50 the brightest. In color there are three lights used together: Red - Green - Blue. When working with negative it is worth remembering that the values are reversed: the brighter the light, the darker the print will be.
Timing Report - A list of the timing lights and corresponding footages the lab used in making your print. The timing report can be very helpful for analyzing the footage and judging the possibilities of further corrections. Any serious problems with the footage (out of focus, scratches, edge fog, etc.) are usually also noted on the timing report.
Tone - 1.: A 1,000 Hz sine wave used at the beginning of a tape to provide consistent volume when transferring sound. 2.: Room Tone.
Tracking Shot - A tracking shot is one where the camera is placed on a dolly and is moved while filmming. Also known as a dolly shot.
Trims - Trims are outtakes of a few frames, usually a foot or less. To keep them from getting lost they are usually stored separately from longer outtakes, either in their own vault box or in a trim book.
Trim Bin or Editing Bin or Bin - A trim bin is a bin on wheels lined with a fabric bag and topped off with a frame with a row pins on which to hang film while editing. Oddly enough, a trim bin is not used for trims, which are small, but for selects and outtakes. Not to be confused with a waste basket!
Tripod Head - The part of the tripod with the pan and tilt mechanism to which the camera is attached.
T-Stop - Similar to an F-Stop, some lenses, particularly zoom lenses, will have f-stops on one side of the aperture ring and t-stops on the other. To differentiate the two, the t-stops will be red and the f-stops white. T-stops are used in place of f-stops for setting exposure. Lenses with a lot of glass elements will often lose a little bit of light. The t-stops are calibrated to the actual amount of light that is hitting the film, rather than arrived at mathematically, as is the case with f-stops. However, the f-stops are still relevant, because while the t-stop should be used to set the exposure, the resulting f-stop will indicate how much Depth of Field you have.
Tungsten - The color temperature of artificial light which is 3,200K on the color temperature scale. Quartz Lights use a tungsten filament, which burns at 3,200K, and gives us this term. Color film for indoor shooting is balanced for tungsten light, otherwise the image would appear orange in hue. If tungsten balanced film is used out-of-doors without a correction filter the image will have a washed-out blue hue.
Turret - A rotating lens mount allowing for the mounting of three or sometimes four lenses on a camera, allowing for the quick change from one lens to another. Only one is in use at any given time, and this is known as the taking lens.
A Glossary of Film Terms ( T ) ،
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
“Safety” - An additional take, done after a successful one, as a backup.
Sandbag - A cloth bag with two chambers filled with sand, used as a weight on the legs of a light stand for additional stability.
Scene - A scene is really just a single shot. But often scene is used to mean several shots, which is more to do with the word’s origin in theater. It is sometimes clearer to say “sequence” for several shots, so as not to confuse the filmic and theatrical meanings of the word.
Scratch - Damage to a film in the form of a long gouge of either the emulsion or the base. A scratch on the emulsion is pretty much unfixable, since part of the image itself is missing. A scratch on the base can be alleviated with Wet Gate printing. Scratches on your workprint don’t really matter at all, since you will go back to the pristine camera original for your final print.
Scratch Mix - A mix with little correction of the sound, that is usually done before the final mix in order to screen the film with all the sounds in place, to determine if there are any changes to be made. Typically this is not done on lower budget productions, as the added cost would be self-defeating.
Scratch Test - A scratch test is done before shooting, by running either a foot or two of the beginning of a roll of film, or a dummy roll of film, and checking for scratches, to insure that neither the camera nor the magazines are scratching the film.
Scratch Track - A sync recording made under conditions that make the sound useless, except for reference to the sound editor or to the actors for dubbing.
“Second Sticks!” - If the clapper on the slate was not visible when the shot was being marked the camera person might call out “second sticks!” to tell the person with the slate to mark it a second time.
Selects - Sometimes it is useful to separate out all the shots you are going to use before beginning to edit. These are known as selects.
Sharpie - A permanent felt-tipped marker useful for labeling the cans of exposed rolls out on a shoot and in the editing room for labeling your leader. Sharpie is a brand-name of the most common of these markers.
Shooting Ratio - The ratio of how much film shot compared to running time of the finished film. For instance a 5 minute film for which you shot 30 minutes of footage would have a shooting ratio of 6 to 1.
Shortends - The unexposed remainder of a roll of film in a magazine that is clipped and placed back into a can for use later. Unlike recans a shotend is something less than 400 feet.
Shot - A shot is the film exposed from the time the camera is started to the time it is stopped. Shot and Scene are interchangeable terms.
Silent Camera - This term is often a little confusing because it does not mean a camera that is itself silent, and therefore usable for sync sound, but it means a noisy, unsilent camera, usable only for shooting silent, M.O.S. scenes.
Silent Speed - 18 frames per second. A slightly archaic notion left over from the time when 16mm was used exclusively for home movies. It is not always that easy to find a projector that will project at 18 frames per second and so films shot at silent speed will often be speeded up slightly, whether the filmmaker intended this of not.
|Single Perf - 16mm film with a row of perforations along one edge. On the film can this will be indicated by 1R appearing on the label.|
Single Reel - In 35mm a reel is 1,000 feet of film (or usually a little less).
Single System - Single System refers to recording, editing or projecting sound and picture together on the same piece of film. Cameras used for tv news would record the sound on a magnetic stripe as well as photograph the picture. Also super-8 sound. Single system has some distinct editorial disadvantages, hence the more common use of Double System for shooting and editing.
The Slate - A board with two hinged sticks attached. The slate is used to record a scene number and sync point (via the clapstick) at the beginning of a shot.
Slop Print - An untimed black and white dupe print of your workprint, used for projection in a sound mix. A slop print is used because splices can jump and cause the film to go out of sync, and a slop print will have no splices.
Slug - A rather unattractive sounding name for Filler.
S.M.P.T.E. Leader - Another term for Academy Leader.
Soft Light - A type of light with a built-in surface to act as a bounce card, providing soft, indirect light on the subject.
Sound Blanket - Basically just a quilted mover’s blanket. Often it is thrown over the camera (and the camera operator) to cut down on camera noise, as a sort of improvised Barney.
Sound Fill - see Filler.
Sound Reader - A playback head for reading mag stock, mounted on a bracket that snaps onto a synchronizer. It is pugged into the squawk box.
Sound Speed - 24 frames per second. The normal speed for filming and projecting.
Sound Slug - see Filler.
Spacer - A metal cylinder with a flat plate at one end and a hole through the center, used between reels on the spindle of a rewind to space out the reels the same distance as the gangs of a synchronizer. Although it is a little shorter, in a pinch you can use cores as spacers.
Specifics - In sound editing, these are any effects that directly relate to the picture, where we see a thing happen and hear it too. Backgrounds, ambiance and speech are not specifics.
“Speed!” - This is what the cameraperson or sound recordist will call out to acknowledge that they are rolling. It comes from the days when it took a few seconds for certain equipment to reach proper speed.
Split Screen - see Matte Shot. Typically a split screen is a matte shot divided down the center of the shot.
Spider - Another, less commonly used, term for Spreader.
Spikes - Spikes are a term that comes from theater. They are little pieces of tape placed around the legs of furniture, or the tripod legs, before they are moved, making it easy to return things to their original position.
Splice - A method of joining two peices of film so they can be projected as one continuous piece. There are three methods: the Tape Splice (usually used for editing), the Cement Splice (used for original material), and the far less common Ultra-Sonic Splice (used for Polyester Base film).
Splicing Tape - A special type of clear tape, not interchangeable with scotch tape, used to splice film. It comes in perforated (for use with a Rivas) and unperforated (for use with a Guillotine). Transparent splicing tape is used for picture and white splicing tape for sound.
Split Reel - A very handy reel, the two halves of which may be unscrewed and film on a core placed between. Once screwed back together (but not too tight, or it will never open) your film on a core has quickly been converted into film on a reel.
Spool Down - Winding an unexposed 400 foot roll down onto four 100 foot daylight spools for use in a camera that will only take 100 feet of film. Spooling down can only be done in complete darkness. 42 turns on a rewind per daylight spool will divide a 400 foot roll pretty evenly. Also, it is vitally important that the film be wound all the way through once and then spooled down, otherwise the edge numbers will be on the wrong side, and not printed onto the workprint.
Spot Meter - A type of meter for taking a Reflective Light Reading with a short telescopic sight that enables you to take a very specific reflective reading of a small, well-defined area.
Spreader - A piece of gear consisting of three arms on a central hub attached to the bottom of a tripod to keep the legs from collapsing outwards.
Spring Lock - A round spring-loaded clamp that goes on the end of a rewind to allow several reels to turn together.
Sprocket - The teeth on a roller designed to engage with the perforations in film. Sometimes sprocket holes are referred to as sprockets too.
Sprocket Holes - The same as Perf.
Spun - Spun glass diffusion material. see Diffusion.
Squawk Box - A small amplified speaker used on an editing bench and receiving sound from the Sound Reader.
Streamer - A grease pencil mark on the workprint indicating either a fade or a dissolve, called so because when projected it resembles a streamer trailing across the screen.
Steenbeck - A popular brand of flatbed. The word is sometimes used interchangeably with flatbed.
The Sticks - 1.: The tripod or the tripod legs. 2.: The clapper on the slate.
Stinger - an endearing term, used by electricians, for an extension cord. Not a very commonly used term on the whole.
Stripe - 35mm mag stock that contains a stripe of magnetic tape rather than the complete coating found on Fullcoat. Stripe mag will also have a balance stripe to prevent warping.
Super 16 - A format using single perf 16mm film on which a wider image is exposed than is the case with regular 16mm, using the area that would normally have the soundtrack. Super 16mm was conceived specifically for blow up to 35mm, and is typically rather inconvenient for anything else.
Super Speed - Just a fancy way for Zeiss to describe a fast prime lens, typically with a T-stop of 1.3.
Superimposition - The same as Double Exposure, but often used expressly to describe a double exposure done through optical printing, as in superimposed titles, etc.
Sync - The degree to which sound and picture are lined up, in-sync being lined up exactly, and out-of-sync not so exactly. It can be applied to any specific sound and picture relationship, not just voices and not just sync-sound, but any type of specific effect too.
Syncing - The actual lining up of sound and picture before editing a sync sound film. This also involves cutting the excess sound between takes, and adding filler, so that the picture and sound are now in sync for beginning to end.
|Sync Mark - 1.: The point at which the clapsticks come together at the beginning of a shot, and the accompanying sound on the sound track. 2.: An “X” mark on a single frame at the beginning of a reel of picture that lined up with a second sync mark on a roll of sound (May also be used anywhere where needed). Sync marks are also used at the beginning of A&B rolls.|
Synchronizer - A very helpful tool of the editing room, a synchronzier is a device with a center axle and several sprocketed wheels attached to it. The wheels are called gangs. Film may be clamped into the gang, so that it can be measured with a footage counter on the front of the synchronizer. One revolution of the synchronizer equals one foot of film. Several elements, such as film and sound, A&B rolls, can be run in tandem can easily cut to the same length. It is used by the negative cutter for the assembly of A&B rolls, as well as for logging, measuring footage, syncing, and checking sync in the editing room.
Sync Sound - Sync sound is sound recorded while shooting picture. Usually it involves footage of people speaking, and is thus sometimes called lip sync. It must be recorded with either crystal or cable sync to line up and not drift out of sync.
A Glossary of Film Terms ( S ) ،